Friday 23 November 2018

Whether new tenancy will be created if second quit notice is issued after issuance of first quit notice?

An English Authority in Lawenthanfal vs. Banhoute 1947 (1) All England Law Report, page 116 was quoted to say that a new tenancy cannot be inferred on the issuance of second notice. It is in this context that it was observed that ''a subsequent notice to quit is of no effect." It was held that a tenancy is not revived by anything short of a new tenancy and in order to create a new tenancy there must be an express or implied agreement to that effect. 

An English commentary "Landlord and Tenant", was quoted by the High Court thus: 
"Generally speaking, giving a second notice to quit does not amount to a waiver of a notice previously given unless, with other circumstances, it is the basis for inferring an intention to create a new tenancy after the expiration of the first." 

To the same effect are the decisions of the Punjab & Haryana High Court in Shiv Jeet Singh vs. Charan Singh (supra) and Bombay High Court in Nanaji Gajanan Upganlawar vs. Shabbir Husain Fida Hussain (supra). The illustrations to Section 113 of the Transfer of Property Act were considered and it was observed that merely because a second notice was given, the first notice cannot be deemed to have been waived. To create a new tenancy, there must be an express or an implied agreement to that effect, and such agreement cannot be unilateral. It has to be bilaterally agreed between the tenant and the landlord for extension of lease. 
28. This High Court in Post Master General vs. District Judge (supra) and Waqf Allal Aulad (supra) has observed that the tenancy would stand terminated on the expiry of the notice period. The Landlord would be justified in receiving the rent for the notice period from the date of service of notice. But merely acceptance of such rent could not be treated as an implied or express consent to treat the lease / tenancy as subsisting on the part of the Landlord. If the Rent Control Act does not apply, then the tenant is liable to be simply evicted after termination of tenancy default or no default in payment of rent, it is wholly immaterial. 
29. In a Full Bench decision in Gokaran Singh vs. 1st Additional District Judge (2000) 40, ALR 405, this Court had observed that even if Rent Control Act applies and in the notice a wrong period of default and a wrong rate of rent is mentioned, still notice does not become invalid. 
30. In the facts and circumstances of the case as have been referred to in the impugned judgment dated 01.10.2011, the Trial Court has treated the First Notice dated 10/20.02.1998 as subsisting because the Landlord did not file the suit for ejectment in pursuance of the first notice but gave a second notice and then filed the suit. The learned Trial Court has observed that the second notice given again was an invalid notice, the suit for ejectment based thereon was liable to be rejected and has rejected the same. 

31. This kind of reasoning can only be said to be perverse. In Swaroop Singh Gupta vs. S. Gagdish Singh (supra) the Supreme Court has observed that mere acceptance of rent for the period in between the issuance of two notices to vacate would not itself constitute an act on the part of the Landlord showing an evidence to treat the lease as subsisting. The fact remains that even after accepting the rent tendered the landlord filed a suit for eviction. It cannot therefore be said that by accepting the rent he intended to waive the notice and to treat the lease as subsisting. The second notice after which the suit was filed for ejectment was not treated as illegal by the Supreme Court only because the first notice to quit was held as determining the tenancy without creating a new tenancy, by the act of the Landlord to accept the rent in the meantime. 

Delivered On :22.11.2018 

CIVIL REVISION No. - 564 of 2011 

Praveen Kumar Jain Vs Jagdish Prasad Gupta 

Hon'ble Mrs. Sangeeta Chandra,J. 
Read full judgment here: Click here
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