Sunday 18 September 2022

Important Provisions of CPC(Part 1) (S 9 to S 95 of CPC)

 9. Courts to try all civil suits unless barred.

10. Stay of suit

11. Res judicata.

13. When foreign judgment not conclusive.

14. Presumption as to foreign judgments.—

15. Court in which suits to be instituted.—Every suit shall be instituted in the Court of the lowest grade competent to try it.

16. Suits to be instituted where subject-matter situate.

17. Suits for immovable property situate within jurisdiction of different Courts.

19. Suits for compensation for wrongs to person or movables.—Where a suit is for compensation for wrong done to the person or to movable property, if the wrong was done within the local limits of the jurisdiction of one Court and the defendant resides, or carries on business, or personally works for gain, within the local limits of the jurisdiction of another Court, the suit may be instituted at the option of the plaintiff in either of the said Courts.

20. Other suits to be instituted where defendants reside or cause of action arises

21. Objections to jurisdiction.—43[(1)] No objection as to the place of suing shall be allowed by any Appellate or Revisional Court unless such objection was taken in the Court of first instance at the earliest possible opportunity and in all cases where issues are settled at or before such settlement, and unless there has been a consequent failure of justice.

26. Institution of suits.—50[(1)] Every suit shall be instituted by the presentation of a plaint or in such other manner as may be prescribed.

51[(2) In every plaint, facts shall be proved by affidavit.]

33. Judgment and decree.—The Court, after the case has been heard, shall pronounce Judgment, and on such Judgment a decree shall follow.

34. Interest.

35. Costs.—

[35-A. Compensatory costs in respect of false or vexatious claims or defences.

(2) No Court shall make any such order for the payment of an amount exceeding 64[three thousand rupees] or exceeding the limits of its pecuniary jurisdiction, whichever amount is less:

[35-B. Costs for causing delay

[36. Application to orders.—The provisions of this Code relating to the execution of decrees (including provisions relating to payment under a decree) shall, so far as they are applicable, be deemed to apply to the execution of orders (including payment under an order).]

37. Definition of Court which passed a decree.

38. Court by which decree may be executed.—A decree may be executed either by the Court which passed it, or by the Court to which it is sent for execution.

39. Transfer of decree.—[(4) Nothing in this section shall be deemed to authorise the Court which passed a decree to execute such decree against any person or property outside the local limits of its jurisdiction.]

46. Precepts.—(1) Upon the application of the decree-holder the Court which passed the decree may, whenever it thinks fit, issue a precept to any other Court which would be competent to execute such decree to attach any property belonging to the judgment-debtor and specified in the precept.

47. Questions to be determined by the Court executing decree.—(1) All questions arising between the parties to the suit in which the decree was passed, or their representatives, and relating to the execution, discharge or satisfaction of the decree, shall be determined by the Court executing the decree and not by a separate suit.

50. Legal representative.—(1) Where a judgment-debtor dies before the decree has been fully satisfied, the holder of the decree may apply to the Court which passed it to execute the same against the legal representative of the deceased.

(2) Where the decree is executed against such legal representative, he shall be liable only to the extent of the property of the deceased which has come to his hands and has not been duly disposed of; and, for the purpose of ascertaining such liability, the Court executing the decree may, of its own motion or on the application of the decree-holder, compel such legal representative to produce such accounts as it thinks fit.

51. Powers of Court to enforce execution.

52. Enforcement of decree against legal representative.—(1) Where a decree is passed against a party as the legal representative of a deceased person, and the decree is for the payment of money out of the property of the deceased, it may be executed by the attachment and sale of any such property.

(2) Where no such property remains in the possession of the judgment-debtor and he fails to satisfy the Court that he has duly applied such property of the deceased as is proved to have come into his possession, the decree may be executed against the judgment-debtor to the extent of the property in respect of which he has failed so to satisfy the Court in the same manner as if the decree had been against him personally.

53. Liability of ancestral property.—For the purposes of Section 50 and Section 52, property in the hands of a son or other descendant which is liable under Hindu law for the payment of the debt of a deceased ancestor, in respect of which a decree has been passed, shall be deemed to be property of the deceased which has come to the hands of the son or other descendant as his legal representative.

54. Partition of estate or separation of share.—Where the decree is for the partition of an undivided estate assessed to the payment of revenue to the Government, or for the separate possession of a share of such an estate, the partition of the estate or the separation of the share shall be made by the Collector or any gazetted subordinate of the Collector deputed by him in this behalf, in accordance with the law (if any) for the time being in force relating to the partition, or the separate possession of shares, of such estates.

55. Arrest and detention of Judgment debtor in civil prison.

56. Prohibition of arrest or detention of women in execution of decree for money.—Notwithstanding anything in this Part, the Court shall not order the arrest or detention in the civil prison of a woman in execution of a decree for the payment of money.

60. Property liable to attachment and sale in execution of decree.

62. Seizure of property in dwelling-house.—(1) No person executing any process under this Code directing or authorising seizure of movable property shall enter any dwelling-house after sunset and before sunrise.

64. Private alienation of property after attachment to be void.—135[(1)] Where an attachment has been made, any private transfer or delivery of the property attached or of any interest therein and any payment to the judgment-debtor of any debt, dividend or other monies contrary to such attachment, shall be void as against all claims enforceable under the attachment.

65. Purchaser's title.—Where immovable property is sold in execution of a decree and such sale has become absolute, the property shall be deemed to have vested in the purchaser from the time when the property is sold and not from the time when the sale becomes absolute.

75. Power of Court to issue commissions.

[79. Suits by or against Government

80. Notice.—153[(1)] 154[Save as otherwise provided in sub-section (2), no suit shall be instituted] against the Government (including the Government of the State of Jammu and Kashmir) or against a public officer in respect of any act purporting to be done by such public officer in his official capacity, until the expiration of two months next after notice in writing has been 155[delivered to, or left at the office of—]

164[(2) A suit to obtain an urgent or immediate relief against the Government (including the Government of the State of Jammu and Kashmir) or any public officer in respect of any act purporting to be done by such public officer in his official capacity, may be instituted, with the leave of the Court, without serving any notice as required by sub-section (1); but the Court shall not grant relief in the suit, whether interim or otherwise, except after giving to the Government or public officer, as the case may be, a reasonable opportunity of showing cause in respect of the relief prayed for in the suit:

Provided that the Court shall, if it is satisfied, after hearing the parties, that no urgent or immediate relief need be granted in the suit, return the plaint for presentation to it after complying with the requirements of sub-section (1).

81. Exemption from arrest and personal appearance.

82. Execution of decree

(2) Execution shall not be issued on any such decree unless it remains unsatisfied for the period of three months computed from the date of 166[such decree].

88. Where interpleader suit may be instituted.—Where two or more persons claim adversely to one another the same debt, sum of money or other property, movable or immovable, from another person, who claims no interest therein other than for charges or costs and who is ready to pay or deliver it to the rightful claimant, such other person may institute a suit of interpleader against all the claimants for the purpose of obtaining a decision as to the person to whom the payment or delivery shall be made and of obtaining indemnity for himself:

Provided that where any suit is pending in which the rights of all parties can properly be decided, no such suit of interpleader shall be instituted.

[89. Settlement of disputes outside the Court.

91. Public nuisances and other wrongful acts affecting the public.—191[(1) In the case of a public nuisance or other wrongful act affecting, or likely to affect, the public, a suit for a declaration and injunction or for such other relief as may be appropriate in the circumstances of the case, may be instituted,—

(a) by the Advocate-General, or

(b) with the leave of the Court, by two or more persons, even though no special damage has been caused to such persons by reason of such public nuisance or other wrongful act.]

19292. Public charities.—(1) In the case of any alleged breach of any express or constructive trust created for public purposes of a charitable or religious nature, or where the direction of the Court is deemed necessary for the administration of any such trust, the Advocate-General, or two or more persons having an interest in the trust and having obtained the 193[leave of the Court,] may institute a suit, whether contentious or not, in the principal Civil Court of original jurisdiction or in any other Court empowered in that behalf by the State Government within the local limits of whose jurisdiction the whole or any part of the subject-matter of the trust is situate to obtain a decree—

94. Supplemental proceedings.—In order to prevent the ends of justice from being defeated the Court may, if it is so prescribed,—

(a) issue a warrant to arrest the defendant and bring him before the Court to show cause why he should not give security for his appearance, and if he fails to comply with any order for security commit him to the civil prison;

(b) direct the defendant to furnish security to produce any property belonging to him and to place the same at the disposal of the Court or order the attachment of any property;

(c) grant a temporary injunction and in case of disobedience commit the person guilty thereof to the civil prison and order that his property be attached and sold;

(d) appoint a receiver of any property and enforce the performance of his duties by attaching and selling his property;

(e) make such other interlocutory orders as may appear to the Court to be just and convenient.

95. Compensation for obtaining arrest, attachment or injunction on insufficient grounds.—

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