Friday, 4 May 2018

Whether High Court on administrative side is a State within meaning of Article 12 of Constitution?

 Hence, in accordance with such judgments holding that
the judgments of the High Court and the Supreme Court
cannot be subjected to writ jurisdiction and for want of
requisite governmental control, judiciary cannot be a State
under Article 12, we also hold that while acting on the judicial
side the courts are not included in the definition of the State.
Only when they deal with their employees or act in other
matters purely in administrative capacity, the courts may fall
within the definition of the State for attracting writ jurisdiction
against their administrative actions only. In our view, such a
contextual interpretation must be preferred because it shall
promote justice, especially through impartial adjudication in
matters of protection of fundamental rights governed by Part
III of the Constitution.”


22. The afore-stated authorities/observations of the Apex Court
clearly indicate that on the judicial side, the courts are not included in the
definition of “State”, but while dealing with the employees or taking
decisions in administrative capacity, the courts would fall within the
definition of “State” under Article 12. Writ jurisdiction gets attracted in
respect of the administrative decisions and actions only.

IN THE HIGH COURT OF JUDICATURE AT BOMBAY
ORDINARY ORIGINAL CIVIL JURISDICTION
WRIT PETITION LODGING NO. 1137 OF 2018
The National Federation of the
Blind Maharashtra and anr. 
Vs.
The High Court of Judicature of Bombay
WITH APPELLATE SIDE
PUBLIC INTEREST LITIGATION NO. 72 OF 2018
(PIL No. 46 of 2018)
(Transferred from Aurangabad Bench)
Sachin Bhaurao Chavan
Vs.
The State of Maharashtra and anr. 

 CORAM: NARESH H. PATIL &
 G. S. KULKARNI, JJ.

 PRONOUNCEMENT: MAY 03, 2018.


 [ Per Naresh H. Patil, J.] :-
1. Rule, returnable forthwith. By consent of the parties heard
finally.
2. The petitioners in Writ Petition Lodging No. 1137 of 2018,
namely, the National Federation of the Blind, Maharashtra, pray for
following substantive relief :-
(a) Be pleased to call for record and proceedings of the
Advertisement dated 28th March, 2018 issued by the
Respondent (Exhibit C) and after going through the same and
satisfying about the legality, validity and propriety thereof be
pleased to issue a writ of mandamus or writ in the nature of
mandamus by directing the Respondent to implement the
provisions of the PWD Act, 1995 and/or RPW Act, 2016 and
be pleased to direct the respondent to consider the candidature
of the Petitioner No.2 and other similarly situated persons of
the present Petitioner No.1 in pursuant to the advertisement
dated 28th March, 2018.”

A Public Interest Litigation No. 46 of 2018 was filed before
the Aurangabad Bench of Bombay High Court by Shri Sachin Bhaurao
Chavan, which was transferred to the principal seat and is numbered as
Public Interest Litigation No. 72 of 2018, was heard along with Writ
Petition Lodging No. 1137 of 2018. The petitioner in Public Interest
Litigation No. 72 of 2018 prays for following reliefs :-
(A) To quash and set aside the advertisement dated 28-03-
2018 issued by the respondent No.2 for filling up posts of
Stenographer (L.G.), junior clerk and Peon/Hamal in various
District Courts in the State of Maharashtra.
(B) To direct the respondents to issue advertisement afresh
for filling up posts of Stenographer (L.G.), junior clerk and
Peon/Hamal in the District Courts in State of Maharashtra by
providing appropriate reservation to the physically
handicapped candidates including visually impaired / blind
candidates as per the section 34 of the Right of Persons with
Disabilities Act, 2016.
3. The petitioner no.1 in Writ Petition Lodging No. 1137 of 2018
– the National Federation of the Blind, Maharashtra, is a Trust registered
under the provisions of the Bombay Public Trust Act, 1950 and Society

registered under the provisions of Societies Registration Act. The
petitioner no.2 is a candidate who is 100% blind, who expects opportunity
to be provided to compete with other candidates pursuant to the
advertisement issued by the respondent. The petitioner no.1 is an
organization, which represents the cause of visually impaired persons.
According to the petitioners respondent – High Court, on the administrative
side, is a State within the meaning of Article 12 of the Constitution of
India, 1950.
4. The petitioners submit that under the provisions of the Persons
with Disabilities (Equal Opportunities, Protection of Rights and Full
Participation) Act, 1995 (for short the Act of 1995), reservation was
prescribed for the visually impaired candidates to the posts which were
identified as per the said Act. It is submitted that under the new Act i.e.
The Rights of Persons with Disabilities Act, 2016 (for short the Act of
2016), additional categories of reservations are prescribed for persons with
disabilities. The respondent – High Court is bound to comply with the
provisions of the Act of 2016. By referring to the advertisement issued on
27/3/2018, published in the local newspaper at District level and on
28/3/2018 published on the official website of the respondent – High

Court, it is submitted that so far post of junior clerk is concerned, only 1%
of 'hearing impaired' and 1% of 'one leg affected' has been reserved for the
disabled person by the respondent. The petitioner no.1 represents visually
impaired persons. The petitioners refer to various orders passed by this
court in respect of the reservation to be provided to the disabled persons.
5. On behalf of the respondent- High Court, a reply is filed by
Mr. Atul Madhukar Kurehekar, Registrar (Legal & Research), High Court,
Appellate Side, Bombay. The deponent states that the present
advertisement was issued to recruit staff in the district courts of the State of
Maharashtra. The district courts are not included in the definition of
“Government Establishment” under Section 2(k) of the Act of 2016. The
deponent states that as against the sanctioned strength of 9131 in the cadre
of Junior Clerks only 8479 Junior Clerks are working, thus there is vacancy
of more than 652 in the cadre of Junior Clerks. Similarly in the cadre of
Peon/Hamal, working strength is around 3978 as against the sanctioned
strength of 4687. Thus, there are around 709 vacancies in the cadre of
Peon/Hamal. The Hon'ble the Chief Justice was pleased to constitute a
Committee of the Hon'ble Judges on 14/12/2016 to initiate the Central Online
Recruitment Process to fill up existing vacancies and future vacancies

of these posts throughout the State of Maharashtra. As per the directions of
the Committee, software for the online recruitment process was upgraded
with the help of NIC of the High Court of Bombay. It was expected that
more than 7 lakh applications would be received. It is further stated that
till 6/4/2018, Bombay High Court has received in all 394686 online
application forms for all the three cadres. The last date of receiving online
application was 10/04/2018. Due to ad-interim order process was stopped
and further applications were not submitted.
6. The deponent further submits that there is urgent need of
recruitment of these posts considering the huge number of vacancies
throughout the State of Maharashtra. The deponent states that present
vacant posts are more than 1580. The respondent considered preparing a
wait list for around more than 7000 posts which are likely to fall vacant in
coming two years. The respondent has taken stand that Act of 2016 is not
applicable to the establishment of Courts as Court establishments are not a
“Government Establishment” as contemplated under Section 34 read with
Section 2(k) of the Act of 2016. The petitioners have misconstrued the
provisions of Section 34 of the Act of 2016. The deponent submits that
large number of applicants have already been submitted application and it

would not be advisable now to cancel the recruitment process and re-start it
which will consume lot of time and will not be in the interest of justice and
the institution.
7. The learned counsel Mr. Uday Warunjikar appearing for the
petitioners in Writ Petition Lodging No. 1137 of 2018 submitted that High
Court on its administrative side is a State under Article 12 of the
Constitution of India qua the recruitment in question. It is even covered
under the definition of 2(k) of the Act of 2016, which defines “Government
establishment”. The High Court administration had made Act of 1995
applicable to the recruitment of staff. Administrative decision was taken to
the said effect and a notification was issued by the High Court making the
Act of 1995 applicable on 29/11/2004. The counsel referred to orders
passed by this court in some of the petitions filed relating to the reservation
to be prescribed to physically handicapped persons in judicial services. It
is submitted that the Central Government / State Government has not
exempted High Court under the provisions of the second proviso to Subsection
(1) of Section 34 of the Act of 2016. The learned counsel referred
to the preamble and various provisions of the Act of 2016. It is submitted
that on 14/12/2016 a Committee of Hon'ble Judges of the High Court was

constituted for the purposes of issuing instructions and guidance to the
Registry in respect of the initiation of the recruitment process. On
27/12/2016 the Hon'ble President of India accorded assent to the Act,
namely, the Rights of Persons with Disabilities Act, 2016, which was
published in the official gazette by a notification dated 28/12/2016. The
appointed date of the New Act was 19/4/2017. The subject advertisement
was issued on 28/3/2018. It is submitted that the respondent ought to
have first identified posts in view of mandatory provisions of Section 33 of
the Act of 2016 and thereafter issued advertisement. The Central
Government has already prescribed a preference order / roster. The
advertisement issued by the respondent is contrary to the law laid down by
the Apex Court, orders issued from time to time in this regard and the
Government Resolution issued by the State Government. The counsel
further submitted that present recruitment process was issued anticipating
future vacancies which are around 2500. The respondent anticipates further
vacancies of 5000 to 6000 posts and, therefore, a waiting list would be
prepared, which would be taken into consideration in coming two years
after the recruitment process gets completed. The counsel, therefore,
submits that if an opportunity is denied to the persons affected with
disabilities now, then the whole purpose of social welfare legislation would

be lost. Asking the petitioners to wait till the fresh recruitment drive is
undertaken in future will be of no use. Therefore, the counsel submits that
the present advertisement be quashed and directions be issued to
respondent to identify the posts in accordance with the Act of 2016 and
then start the recruitment process.
8. In support of his submissions, the learned counsel for the
petitioners placed reliance on the following judgments :-
(a) Dalco Engineering vs. Satish Prabhakar Padhye [(2010)
4 SCC 378].
(b) Sudeepti Sharma vs. State of Punjab [2013 SCC On line
P & H 16263.
(c) Babita Pathak & ors. vs. High Court of Delhi & ors.
[Writ Petition (C) No. 997 of 2011 decided on
22/2/2013].
(d) Nishant S. Diwan vs. High Court of Delhi [Writ Petition
(C) No. 983 of 2014 decided on 25/3/2014].
(e) Sarika vs. State of U.P. [C.M. W.P. No. 55266 of 2003
decided on 24/2/2005].
9. Mr. Mateen Shaikh, the learned counsel appearing for the
petitioner in PIL No. 72 of 2018, adopted the argument advanced by
Mr. Warunjikar, learned counsel appearing for petitioners in Writ Petition
Lodging No. 1137 of 2018. The learned counsel submits that disabled
persons must be provided with equal opportunity to participate in the
public employment otherwise it would amount to discrimination.
10. Mr. Sudhir Talsania, the learned Senior Counsel appearing for
the respondent – High Court, submitted that High Court is not covered by
the definition of Government Establishment as defined under Section 2(k)
of the Act of 2016. Neither the Act of 1995 nor the Act of 2016 is
applicable to the services of judiciary or judicial establishment / High
Court / District Courts services. This has been a consistent stand of the
respondent. The learned counsel referring to Parts IV, V and VI of the
Constitution of India submitted that the respondent – Institution is covered
under Part VI of the Constitution of India. Provisions of Articles 233 to
236 were referred by the learned counsel. While referring to Article 229 of
the Constitution, it was submitted that appointment of officers and servants
of the High Court shall be made by the Chief Justice of the Court or such
other Judge or officer of the court as he may direct. The respondent High
Court being a constitutional establishment, the provisions of Section 2(k)
of the Act of 2016 cannot be made applicable, even if the Central or the

State allocate funds for running the courts and/or its establishment. They
are independent of the Government. Even the ministerial staff of the court
is included in the definition of judicial service, according to the learned
counsel. Therefore, the mandate of provisions of Sections 33 and 34 of the
Act of 2016 is not applicable.
11. The learned Senior Counsel submits that the respondent had
adopted in past application of certain provisions of the Act of 1995 to the
recruitment of staff. This was on the choice of the respondent –
Institution and the Act cannot be imposed by a mandate of law to be
adopted and implemented by the respondent. The respondent would take
appropriate decision in respect of the application of the Act of 2016. As and
when such a decision is taken on the administrative side, further steps will
be taken accordingly. The learned counsel referred to the advertisement,
the number of applications received till now, the vacancy position and dire
need to recruit persons, otherwise the functioning of the district courts
would get affected. In the view of the learned Senior Counsel the petition
(WPL No. 1137/18) is vague and silent on many vital issues. The
petitioner no.2 did not participate in the selection process and both, the
writ petition and the PIL, deserve to be dismissed. The learned Senior

Counsel, in support of his argument, placed reliance on the following
judgments :-
(a) State of Bihar vs. Bal Mukund Sah [(2004) 4 SCC 640].
(b) Government of India and anr. vs. Ravi Prakash Gupta
and anr. [(2010) 7 SCC 626].
(c) Union of India and anr. vs. National Federation of the
Blind and ors. [(2013) 10 SCC 772].
12. The State of Maharashtra is made party to the PIL No. 72 of
2018. The learned Advocate General has made submissions on behalf of
the State. The learned Advocate General referred to a written summary of
his submissions. The learned AG submits that the issue raised herein is as
to whether the High Court in its administrative side is a “State” within the
meaning of Article 12 of the Constitution. By referring to judgments in the
case of Dalco Engg. (P) Ltd. (Supra), Naresh Shridhar Mirajkar vs. State of
Maharashtra [(1973) 4 SCC 225], Dashrath vs. High Court of Judicature
[2016 (6) Mh.L.J. 74], Rune vs. District and Sessions Judge, Tis Hazari
[(2014) 14 SCC 50], the learned AG submitted that it is possible to contend
that the High Court on its administrative side may be considered a State,
but not on its judicial side within the meaning of Article 12. If it is so,

then the High Court on its administrative side would, therefore, fall within
the definition of “ Government establishment” as defined under Section
2(k) of the Act of 2016. In such an eventuality, the High Court on its
administrative side ought to carry out the provision of the Act, which is a
piece of a social welfare legislation.
13. On the issue as to whether the writ of mandamus would lie
against the High Court in view of the provisions of Article 229 of the
Constitution of India to comply with the provisions of the Act of 2016, the
learned AG submitted that such a writ of mandamus would not lie against
the Chief Justice to legislate and frame rules under Article 229, to include
reservations (Shamrao Tamgade vs. State of Maharashtra – 2006 (6)
Mh.L.J. (FB) 524. The learned AG, on the basis of the judgment of
Hon'ble three Judges' Bench of the Supreme Court in the case of Renu vs.
District and Sessions Judge, Tiz Hazari (Supra), submitted that even under
the Constitution the power of appointment granted to the Chief Justice
under Article 229(1) is subject to Article 16(1) which guarantees equality
of opportunity for all citizens in matters relating to employment. In the
facts, the learned AG submitted that a mode adopted in the case of C.G.
Govindan vs. State of Gujarat [(1998) 7 SCC 625], may be adopted by

allowing the present recruitment process to continue while the High Court
on administrative side would take appropriate decision and would also
identify posts and by keeping reservation for persons with disabilities,
initiate fresh recruitment process to fill in strictly in terms of the Act of
2016. The learned AG placed reliance on the following judgments :-
(a) Government of India, through Secretary and anr. vs.
Ravi Prakash Gupta and anr. [(2010) 7 SCC 626].
(b) Syed Bashir-Ud-Din Qadri vs. Nazir Ahmed Shah and
ors. [(2010) 3 SCC 603].
(c) Dalco Engineering Private Ltd. vs. Satish Prabhakar
Padhye and ors. [(2010) 4 SCC 378].
(d) Riju Prasad Sarma and ors. vs. State of Assam and ors.
[2015) 9 SCC 461].
(e) Renu and ors. vs. District and Sessions Judge, Tis
Hazari Courts [(2014) 14 SCC 50].
(f) Shamrao Shripat Tamgade vs. State of Maharashtra and
ors. [2006(6) Mh.L.J. 524].
(g) C.G. Govindan vs. State of Gujarat and ors. [(1998) 7
SCC 625].
(h) P. Kasilingam and ors. vs. P.S.G. College Technology
and ors. [1995 Supp (2) SCC 348].
(i) Dashrath Keshavji Pande and ors. vs. High Court of
Judicature at Bombay [2016 (6) Mh.L.J. 74].

14. We have perused the record placed before us, considered the
submissions advanced. We have perused the relevant provisions of the
Constitution of India, the Act of 1995 and the Act of 2016 and the various
decisions cited before us.
15. The first submission advanced by the learned Senior Counsel
appearing for the respondent – High Court is that neither the provisions of
the Act of 1995 nor the Act of 2016 are applicable to the respondent needs
to be addressed. The learned Senior Counsel submitted that the High
Court / District Courts services / staff services are not included and covered
under the definition of Section 2(k) of the Act of 2016. This submission we
find is not consistent with the administrative decisions taken by the
respondent, as also the judgments/orders passed by this court while
dealing with such identical issues in petitions, which were disposed of,
which we note hereunder.
16. The minutes of Administrative Judges' meeting held on
28/10/2004 reads as under :-

“Subject No.11: Question of reservation of vacancies for the
appointment of Physically Handicapped
persons on the establishment of High Court at
Bombay and its Benches at Nagpur,
Aurangabad and Goa-Panaji and also on the
establishment of District Courts in the State
of Maharashtra.
Decision Discussed.
Having reconsidered the earlier
decision dated 3rd September, 1998 on the
subject, it was decided that the provisions
regarding reservation of vacancies contained
in The Persons with Disability (Equal
Opportunities, Protection of Rights and Full
Participation) Act, 1995 be made applicable
to appointments in Class III and Class IV
services in the Judiciary throughout the State
of Maharashtra.
Registry to take follow – up action. “
 (Emphasis supplied)
Consequently, notification was issued by the High Court of
Judicature at Bombay on 29/11/2004, which reads as under :

“NOTIFICATION
No X.2319/71. - In exercise of the powers conferred by Article
229 r.w. Article 235 of the Constitution of India, the
Honourable the Chief Justice is pleased to direct that the
provisions regarding reservation of vacancies contained in The
Persons with Disability (Equal Opportunities, Protection of
Rights and Full Participation) Act, 1995 be made applicable to
appointments in Class III and Class IV services in the
Judiciary throughout the State of Maharashtra.”.
Bombay, dated 29th November 2004 R.C. CHAVAN,
 Registrar General”
17. Further a notification was published in the Government
Gazette, notifying that the Hon'ble Chief Justice is pleased to make
applicable the Disabilities (Equal Opportunities, Full Participation and
Protection of Rights) Act, 1995 in recruitment to the post under Group C
and D in the High Court and its Benches and subordinate courts in
Maharashtra, issued on 20/11/2009 by the Registrar General of the High
Court of Judicature at Bombay. It would be appropriate to note the said
Resolution, which reads as under:-

“NOTIFICATION
No.Rule/X-2319/71
Read.- (1) Government Resolution, General Administration
Department No. SRV.1077/3576/1433/16-A, dated
23rd May, 1978.
 (2) Government Resolution, General Administration
Department No. SRV. 1081/CR-15/16-A, dated 7th
September 1982.
(3) Persons with Disabilities (Equal Opportunities,
Full Participation and Protection of Rights) Act,
1995 (No.1/1996).
(4) Government Circular, General Administration
Department No. SRV. 1098/M. No. 12/16-A, dated
2
nd May 1998.
 (5) High Court Notification No. X-2319/71, dated 29th
November 2004.
Preface.- The persons with Disabilities (Equal Opportunities,
Full Participation and Protection of Rights) Act, 1995 (No.I of
1996) came into force from the date 7th February, 1996.
Pursuant to the said Act, the Hon'ble Chief Justice is pleased
to make applicable the said Act to appointments in Class III
and IV in Judiciary throughout the State of Maharashtra, By
the Circular dated 2nd May 1998, the Government has issued
instructions to keep reservation for (1) Blind Persons, Persons
affected with low vision (2) Hearing Impairment (3)
Locomotor disability or cerebral palsy in the Government
Service at the time of direct recruitment. Accordingly, the
issue was under consideration of keeping reservation for the
disabled persons on the posts in Group “C” and “D” in High
Court and Subordinate Courts in Maharashtra.”

Resolution.- (1) While making appointments by direct
recruitment to the posts in Group “C” and “D” Cadre in High
Court and 3 Benches and Subordinate Courts in Maharashtra
3% reservation should be kept for the disabled persons in the
categories viz. (1) 1% to Blind Persons- Persons with low
vision (2) 1% to Hearing Impairment (3) 1% to Locomotor
Disability or cerebral Palsy at the time of direct recruitment to
the reserved posts as shown in the Statement guidelines
enclosed herewith.
(2) While appointing disabled candidates to the Posts of
Clerk and Peon in the Cadre viz Group 'C' and 'D' by direct
recruitment as per Guidelines and below mentioned conditions
should be fulfilled: -
(A) The disabled candidate must hold qualification as per
the provisions of the Recruitment Rules in respect of the
concerned Posts.
(B) For the disabled candidates, it shall be necessary to
comply with the criteria pertaining to physical ability that
have been prescribed in the statement enclosed herewith.
(C) Minimum Percentage of disability should be 40%.
(D) For the Appointment to the Post in Group 'C' and 'D', it
shall be necessary to declare such candidate able by the
Medical Board consisting of Experts in the concerned subject
from the view point of physical ability taking into account the
duties and responsibilities of the said post. The concerned

candidates will be considered for his appointment only after
his ability is established.
(E) For the categories viz. The persons with low vision,
hearing impairment and locomotor disability or cerebral palsy,
appointment will be made by keeping reservation in the direct
recruitment upto in all 3% in the proportion of 1% for each
category.
(3) As per the criteria mentioned in Paragraph No.1 and 2
herein above, disabled persons shall be appointed by direct
recruitment to the Posts in Group 'C' and 'D' who shall have to
do the work as per duty lists (Guidelines and duty lists of the
High Court, Original Side, Appellate Side and Subordinate
Courts are enclosed herewith).
(4) The rules / guidelines prepared by Government be
followed, if same are not inconsistent wit the rules/ guidelines
prepared for Group 'C' and 'D'.
(5) These guidelines are issued with the direction of
Hon'ble Lordships.
Mumbai. A.I.S. CHEEMA,
Dated 20th November 2009 Registrar General.”
18. In Writ Petition No. 1784 of 2015 which was decided by the
Division Bench on 14/10/2015, the petitioner therein had sought direction
to consider application of provisions of Section 33 of the Act of 1995 for
the post of Judicial Magistrate, First Class and/or Civil Judge, Junior

Division. In para 9 of the said order, the Division Bench observed as
under:-
“9. It is further set out that in a meeting of the Hon'ble
Administrative Judges Committee held on 28/10/2004, earlier
decision dated 3/9/1998 was reconsidered and following
decision was taken whereby the provisions of the Act are
made applicable to the appointments in Class III and Class IV
services in the judiciary throughout the State of Maharashtra.
Discussed.
Having reconsidered the earlier decision dated 3rd
September, 1998 on the subject, it was decided that the
provisions regarding reservation of vacancies contained
in The Persons with Disability (Equal Opportunities,
Protection of Rights and Full Participation) Act, 1995 be
made applicable to appointments in Class III and Class
IV services in the Judiciary throughout the State of
Maharashtra. Registry to take follow – up action.
Accordingly, Notification dated 29/11/2004 was published in
the Maharashtra Government Gazette on 23/12/2004 by which
the provisions of the Act were made applicable to
appointments in Class III and Class IV services in judiciary
throughout the State of Maharashtra. In substance, it is
contended that the provisions of the Act do not apply for
appointments to the posts of Civil Judge, Jr. Dn., and /or
Judicial Magistrate First Class.”

19. We find in the record charts showing the identification of
various posts done by the respondent. It seems that the identification made
by the State Government has been adopted by the respondent – High Court.
A Office Memorandum of Government of India, Ministry of Personnel,
Public Grievances & Pensions, Department of Personnel & Training, North
Block, New Delhi dated 15/1/2018 is placed on record, which prescribed
cycles of 100 points roster for effecting reservation. The Central
Government had by way of notification published Rules, namely, the
Rights of Persons with Disabilities Rules 2017 which extend to the whole
of India.
20. The question as to whether the High Court is a “State” within
the meaning of Article 12 of the Constitution is settled one. The Apex
Court in the case of H. C. Puttaswamy and ors. vs. Hon'ble Chief Justice
of Karnataka High Court, Bangalore and ors. [AIR 1991 SC 295] observed
as under :-
“The Judiciary is the custodian of constitutional principles
which are essential to the maintenance of rule of law. It is the
vehicle for the protection of a set of values which are integral
part of our social and political philosophy. Judges are the most

visible actors in the administration of justice. Their case
decisions are the most publicly visible outcome. But the
administration of justice is just not deciding disputed cases. It
involves great deal more than that. Any realistic analysis of the
administration of justice in the Courts must also take account
of the totality of the Judges behaviour and their administrative
roles. They may appear to be only minor aspects of the
administration of justice, but collectively they are not trivial.
They constitute, in our opinion, a substantial part of the mosaic
which represents the ordinary man's perception of what the
Courts are and how the Judges go about their work. The Chief
Justice is the prime force in the High Court. Article 229 of the
Constitution provides that appointment of officers and servants
of the High Court shall be made by the Chief Justice or such
other Judge or officer of the Court as may be directed by the
Chief Justice. The object of this Article was to secure the
independence of the High Court which cannot be regarded as
fully secured unless the authority to appoint supporting staff
with complete control over them is vested in the Chief Justice.
There can be no disagreement on this matter. There is
imperative need for total and absolute administrative
independence of the High Court but the Chief Justice or any
other Administrative Judge is not an absolute ruler. Nor he is a
free wheeler. He must operate in the clan world of law, not in
the neighbourhood of sordid atmosphere. He has has a duty to
ensure that in carrying out the administrative functions, he is

actuated by same principles and values as those of the Court he
is serving. He cannot depart from and indeed must remain
committed for the constitutional ethos and traditions of his
calling. We need hardly say that those who are expected to
oversee the conduct of others must necessarily maintain a
higher standard of ethical and intellectual rectitude. The public
expectations do not seem to be less exacting.”
In the case of Riju Prasad Sarma and ors. vs. State of Assam
and ors. (Supra), the Apex Court observed as under :-
“67. On the related issue of the scope of Article 12 and
whether for the purposes of issuance of writ, judicial decisions
by the judiciary can be included in State action, we are in
agreement with the submissions advanced by Mr. Rajeev
Dhavan that definition of “the State” under Article 12 is
contextual depending upon all the relevant facts including the
provisions concerned in Part III of the Constitution. The
definition is clearly inclusive and not exhaustive. Hence
omission of judiciary when the Government and Parliament of
India as well as the Government and Legislature of each of the
States has been included is conspicuous but not conclusive
that judiciary must be excluded. The relevant case laws cited
by Mr. Dhavan are :

(i) Pradeep Kumar Biswas v. Indian Institute of Chemical
Biology.
(ii) Naresh Shridhar Mirajkar v. State of Maharashtra
(iii) Poonam v. Sumit Tanwar.
68. Hence, in accordance with such judgments holding that
the judgments of the High Court and the Supreme Court
cannot be subjected to writ jurisdiction and for want of
requisite governmental control, judiciary cannot be a State
under Article 12, we also hold that while acting on the judicial
side the courts are not included in the definition of the State.
Only when they deal with their employees or act in other
matters purely in administrative capacity, the courts may fall
within the definition of the State for attracting writ jurisdiction
against their administrative actions only. In our view, such a
contextual interpretation must be preferred because it shall
promote justice, especially through impartial adjudication in
matters of protection of fundamental rights governed by Part
III of the Constitution.”
21. In the case of Renu and ors. vs. District and Sessions Judge,
Tis Hazari Courts (Supra), the Apex Court observed as under :-
“29. Thus, in view of the above, the law can be summarised
to the effect that the powers under Article 229(2) of the

Constitution cannot be exercised by the Chief Justice in an
unfettered and arbitrary manner. Appointments should be
made giving adherence to the provisions of Articles 14 and 16
of the Constitution and/or such rules as made by the
legislature.
30. In today's system, daily labourers and casual labourers
have been conveniently introduced which are followed by
attempts to regularize them at a subsequent stage. Therefore,
most of the times the issue raised is about the procedure
adopted for making appointments indicating an improper
exercise of discretion even when the rules specify a particular
mode to be adopted. There can be no doubt that the
employment whether the Class IV, Class III, Class II or any
other class in the High Court or courts subordinate to it falls
within the definition of “public employment”. Such an
employment, therefore, has to be made under rules and under
orders of the competent authority.
34. We would like to make it clear that the High
Court is a constitutional and an autonomous authority
subordinate to none. Therefore, nobody can undermine the
constitutional authority of the High Court, and therefore the
purpose to hear this case is only to advise the High Court that
it its rules are not in consonance with the philosophy of our
Constitution then the same may be modified and no

appointment in contravention thereof should be made. It is
necessary that there is strict compliance with appropriate rules
and the employer is bound to adhere to the norms of Articles
14 and 16 of the Constitution before making any recruitment.”
 (Emphasis supplied)
In the case of Shamrao Shripat Tamgade vs. State of
Maharashtra and ors. (Supra), the Full Bench of this Court, in para 24
observed as under :-
“24. Hence the power of the Chief Justice is neither absolute
nor unfettered. However no Court under Article 226 of the
Constitution of India has the power to direct the Chief Justice
to frame or formulate rules or make appointments for a
particular purpose since that would mean impinging on the
discretion of the Chief Justice. In other words although the
Court has every power to examine the constitutional validity of
rules framed under Article 229 of the Constitution of India, but
it cannot issue directives to the Chief Justice to frame rules for
the benefit of a certain section of society. To put it in other
words, no Writ of Mandamus would lie against the Chief
Justice to legislate rules under Article 229 of the Constitution
of India.”

22. The afore-stated authorities/observations of the Apex Court
clearly indicate that on the judicial side, the courts are not included in the
definition of “State”, but while dealing with the employees or taking
decisions in administrative capacity, the courts would fall within the
definition of “State” under Article 12. Writ jurisdiction gets attracted in
respect of the administrative decisions and actions only.
23. We are not convinced with the submission of the learned
Senior Counsel appearing for the respondent – High Court that it is the
choice of the respondent to adopt the Act of 2016 and make it applicable.
So far the Act of 2016 has not been made applicable by the respondent. In
view of the administrative decisions taken in the years 2004 and 2009, and
consequent issuance of notification as stated above, which has been taken
note of by the Division Bench of this Court, it is crystal clear that the
respondent had made the provisions of the Act of 1995 applicable to the
services (non judicial post) in the judiciary. In fact, the notification issued
by the High Court on 20/11/2009 stipulates that the Hon'ble Chief Justice
was pleased to make applicable the Act of 1995 for appointments in Class
III and IV in judiciary throughout the State of Maharashtra. Reference
was also made to Circular dated 2/5/1998 issued by the Government to

keep reservation for the disabled persons on the posts in Group “C” and
“D” in the High Court and Subordinate Courts in Maharashtra.
Significantly, the advertisement in question also has made provision for
reservation to persons suffering disability as noted above. All this indicates
a clear acceptance of the applicability of the provisions of the law framed
by the Parliament for the disabled category of candidates.
24. Thus the issue as raised by the learned Senior Counsel that
the High Court is not a “Government establishment” attracting provisions
of Section 2(k), we are of the clear opinion that in view of the aforementioned
decisions taken by the Administrative Committee, the
notification issued, applying the Act of 1995 qua the recruitment of Group
“C” and “D” posts and further the inclusion of the Court under Article 12,
we find that the submission advanced in respect of the High Court not
falling under the definition of Government establishment and consequently
non applicability of provisions of Section 2(k) is not sustainable.
25. The learned Senior Counsel for the respondent submitted that
as posts are not identified, the provisions of Section 34 of the Act of 2016
cannot be implemented. In fact, the Apex Court had already ruled on this

issue and it was observed that reservation under the Disabilities Act has to
be vacancy-based, certainly the posts are required to be identified to fill in
vacancies. There must be a post in existence to enable the vacancy to
occur. Just because the identification exercise has not been done, we find
that the benefit accruing to the persons under the Act, which is a piece of
social welfare legislation, cannot be denied to deserving persons. We may
refer to the judgment of the Apex Court in the case of Union of India and
anr. vs. National Federation of the Blind and ors. (Supra). The Apex Court
in para 48 observed as under:-
“48. Adhering to the decision laid by the Constitution Bench
in R.K.Sabharwal, the High Court held as follows : (National
Fenderation of the Blind case, SCC p. 458, para 16)
“16. The Disabilities Act was enacted for protection of
the rights of the disabled in various spheres like
education, training, employment and to remove any
discrimination against them in the sharing of
development benefit vis-a-vis non-disabled persons. In
the light of the legislative aim it is necessary to give
purposive interpretation to Section 33 with a view to
achieve the legislative intendment of attaining
equalisation of opportunities for persons with

disabilities. The fact that the vacancy-based roster is to
be maintained does not mean that 3% reservation has to
be computed only on the basis of vacancy. The
difference between the posts and vacancies has been
succinctly pointed out in the Supreme Court decision in
R.K. Sabharwal vs. State of Punjab, wherein it was held
that the word “post” means an appointment, job, office
or employment, a position to which a person is
appointed. 'Vacancy' means an unoccupied post or
office. The plain meaning of the two expressions make it
clear that there must be a 'post' in existence to enable the
'vacancy' to occur. The cadre strength is always
measured by the number of posts comprising the cadre.
Right to be considered for appointment can only be
claimed in respect of a post in a cadre. As a consequence
the percentage of reservation has to be worked out in
relation to the number of posts which form the cadre
strength. The concept of 'vacancy' has no relevance in
operating the percentage of reservation. Therefore, in
our opinion, 3% reservation for disabled has to be
computed on the basis of total strength of the cadre i.e.
both identified as well as unidentified posts.”
26. In the case of Justice Sunanda Bhandare Foundation vs. Union
of India and anr. [(2017) 14 SCC 1], the Apex Court observed in paras 24
and 25 as under :-

“24. We have referred to certain provisions only to highlight
that the 2016 Act has been enacted and it has many salient
features. As we find, more rights have been conferred on the
disabled persons and more categories have been added. That
apart, access to justice , free education, role of local
authorities, National fund and the State fund for persons with
disabilities have been created. The 2016 Act is noticeably a
sea change in the perception and requires a march forward
look with regard to the persons with disabilities and the role
of the States, local authorities, educational institutions and the
companies. The statute operates in a broad spectrum and the
stress is laid to protect the rights and provide punishment for
their violation.
25. Regard being had to the change in core aspects, we
think it apposite to direct all the States and the Union
Territories to file compliance report keeping in view the
provisions of the 2016 Act within twelve weeks hence. The
States and Union Territories must realise that under the 2016
Act their responsibilities have grown and they are required to
actualise the purpose of the Act, for there is an accent on
many a sphere with regard to the rights of those with
disabilities. When the law is so concerned for the disabled
persons and makes provision, it is the obligation of the law
executing authorities to give effect to the same in quite

promptitude. The steps taken in this regard shall be concretely
stated in the compliance report within the time stipulated.
When we are directing the States, a duty is cast also on the
States and its authorities to see that the statutory provisions
that are enshrined and applicable to the cooperative societies,
companies, firms, associations and establishments,
institutions, are scrupulously followed. The State
Governments shall take immediate steps to comply with the
requirements of the 2016 Act and file the compliance report so
that this Court can appreciate the progress made.”
27. The Parliament realised the national need of the rights of the
persons with disability and commitment to the Convention of the United
Nations General Assembly, repealed the 1995 Act and present Act of 2016
was enacted. This Act of 2016 was brought into existence to give effect to
the United Nations Convention.
28. In the case of Govt. of India vs. Ravi Prasad Gupta (Supra),
the Apex Court observed in para 29 as under :-
“29. While it cannot be denied that unless posts are identified
for the purposes of Section 33 of the aforesaid Act, no
appointments from the reserved categories contained therein

can be made, and that to such extent the provisions of Section
33 are dependent on Section 32 of the ct, as submitted by the
learned ASG, but the extent of such dependence would be for
the purpose of making appointments and not for the purpose of
making reservation. In other words, reservation under Section
33 of the Act is not dependent on identification, as urged on
behalf of the Union of India, though a duty has been cast upon
the appropriate Government to make appointments in the
number of posts reserved for the three categories mentioned in
Section 33 of the Act in respect of person suffering from the
disabilities spelt out therein. In fact, a situation has also been
noticed where on account of non-availability of candidates
some of the reserved posts could remain vacant in a given
year. For meeting such eventualities, provision was made to
carry forward such vacancies for two years after which they
would lapse. Since in the instant case such a situation did not
arise and posts were not reserved under Section 33 of the
Disabilities Act, 1995, the question of carrying forward of
vacancies or lapse thereof, does not arise.”
29. In view of the preamble of the Act of 2016, the statement of
objects and reasons and the view expressed by the Apex Court in the case
of National Federation of the Blind and Justice Sunanda Bhandare
Foundation, we find that the Act of 2016, being a piece of social welfare
legislation, which confers rights on physically handicapped persons, must

be implemented in its letter and spirit. The provisions must be liberally
construed so that the object in passing and enacting law is achieved. It is
true that in the subject advertisement and the advertisement issued during
the hearing of these petitions by the Registry of the Aurangabad Bench of
this Court certain reservations, as applicable under the old Act of 1995, to
some extent, have been made. But the Act of 2016 has expanded the list
of disabilities which would cover and confer benefit on large section of
persons suffering the disabilities as prescribed in the schedule under
Clause (zc) of Section 2 under caption “specified disability”. The Act of
2016 was in operation for near about a year prior to issuance of subject
recruitment advertisement. It seems that exercise on the administrative
side in respect of identification of the posts could not be carried out in
accordance with the provisions of the Act of 2016.
30. We may note that we had adjourned the hearing of these
petitions for the learned Senior Counsel to take instructions as to whether
the respondent-High Court on administrative side would take decision qua
providing reservation of 4% seats in the present recruitment drive as per
the requirement of the Act of 2016, by identifying the posts. A separate
special recruitment drive could be undertaken later on qua the said posts.

The learned Senior Counsel submits that on this proposal no statement
could be made as High Court on the administrative side is yet to take a
decision.
31. In the facts, we find that in case a solution is not carved out at
this stage, then the benefit flowing from the provisions of statute may not
be available to the deserving persons for a considerably long period as the
present recruitment drive includes even proposed vacancies of near about
more than 7000 posts which may accrue in coming two years' period for
which a wait-list is likely to be prepared. At the initial stage, the
Registry pointed out that 1580 are lying vacant, but on the date of hearing
of the petitions we are informed that around 2482 posts are lying vacant.
32. We are conscious of the fact that keeping the posts vacant in
the courts is not going to serve any purpose as the same would affect
effective functioning of the courts. We are informed that more than 3.5
lakhs candidates have already filed applications. In case the recruitment
process itself is quashed and set aside, it may disturb the recruitment
process and may cause prejudice to the candidates who have so far
submitted on-line applications. Conscious of the situation, we have to

find a balanced solution to the emerging issue. We find that in the facts
scenario, the recruitment process shall be allowed to continue with a rider
that the respondent – High Court shall keep 4% seats/posts vacant in the
subject recruitment drive and these seats shall be filled in after the
respondent-High Court takes a decision on the administrative side on
identification of posts. Thereafter by a special drive, recruitment process
could be initiated for filling up vacancies for persons who are covered
under the provisions of Act of 2016. Such an approach will not only benefit
the candidates in general but protect the legal rights of the candidates, who
find themselves deprived of in getting benefits of the Act of 2016.
33. We accordingly pass following order :-
 O R D E R
(a) Both the Writ Petition and Public Interest Litigation are
partly allowed.
(b) The respondent – High Court shall not fill in 4% of the
posts in the subject recruitment process which are
required to be reserved for the persons with disabilities
under the Act of 2016.

(c) After the respondent – High Court, on the
administrative side, takes a decision, posts be identified
so that the reservation as prescribed under the Act of
2016 could be made applicable as per identification of
the posts. A fresh recruitment drive be undertaken
thereafter at the earliest.
(d) Subject to the above directions, the ad-interim relief
granted by this court on 6/4/2018 stands vacated. The
recruitment process in respect of the subject
advertisement would continue.
34. Rule is made absolute in the above terms.
 (G. S. KULKARNI, J.) (NARESH H. PATIL,J.)
35. After the pronouncement of the judgment, Mr. Warunjikar, the
learned counsel appearing for the petitioners in Writ Petition Lodging No.
1137 of 2018, on instructions, prays for continuation of ad-interim relief
granted by this court on 6/4/2018 for a period of eight weeks. Mr. Talsania,

the learned Senior Counsel appearing for the respondent-High Court
submits that the court administration is in need of additional staff.
Therefore, the prayer made by the learned counsel for the petitioners be
rejected.
36. In the facts, we are not inclined to grant the prayer made by
the learned counsel for the petitioners. The prayer is accordingly rejected.
 (G. S. KULKARNI, J.) (NARESH H. PATIL,J.)

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